Essay Writing

What are the 5 chapters of the dissertation?

In our previous blog, we have discussed “how to write a dissertation methodology”. Likewise, in this blog, we will be studying the 5 chapters of the dissertation. In the academic sessions, every student has to conduct research and write down a proper thesis. Certainly, it can be a complex task that requires planning and structuring. 

A dissertation is academic writing with the step of the research from introduction to conclusion. It is a part of postgraduate or undergraduate submissions. Additionally, the structure of the dissertation is selected concerning the field of the study. It is divided into 5 parts or the 5 chapters of the dissertation.

5 chapters of a dissertation

As mentioned above, students are required to write a dissertation in the graduation or post-graduation period. To explain, it can be considered as a chance for students to show that they are now skilled and have the required knowledge. There are certain rules in order to govern the structure or the presentation of the thesis. Dissertation writing should include:

  1. Introduction
  2. Literature review 
  3. Dissertation methodology
  4. Results 
  5. Conclusion 

With this purpose in mind, let us read why the dissertation is divided into such a manner. 

Chapter 1: Introduction

Generally this section of the thesis explains the conceptual basis of the research. This is inclusive of the topic of investigation, questions of the research process, hypothesis, and a basic design of the research. Besides, writing an introduction is necessary as it enhances the significance of your study. 

This section will help the readers understand why your study is unique, your approach towards something that was never studied before, and how is a better extension of any study that has been conducted before. Moreover, it should also contain an overview of the contents you are going to write in chapter one. Note that chapter 1 includes some topics which often needs amendments once the data analysis is done. Make no mistakes when it comes to grammar, structure, formatting, punctuations, transitions, paragraph making, verbs, and tenses.

The proposal for your dissertation should be written in the future tense whilst the dissertation should be in the past tense.

A good dissertation is not selected depending upon the writing quality but on the criteria established for the varied sections of the dissertation. 

Chapter 2: Literature Review

In this chapter, students are required to introduce the theoretical framework for the study in addition to the development in the topic, design elements, research problems, and questions.

The literature review should be well-articulated to provide a foundation for the dissertation. This chapter among the 5 chapters of the dissertation is written with an idea of the development of an argument. As a result, this argument helps in the selection of the topic, formation of the questions for the study, and in the justification that why the chosen methodology is suitable. By the same token, the literature review talks about the ideas and content already formed by scholars and researchers.

In common terms, we can understand that a literature review presents readers with everything that is existing about the topic along with the tensions and gaps in the study. 

Chapter 3: Dissertation methodology 

Chapter 3 of any theses is about the method used in the study to come to a conclusion and solve the gaps and needs. There are certain elements of this chapter that we cannot eliminate. Another equally important tip is that a good dissertation methodology chapter includes a summary of the focus of the study, research questions, research methodology, research design, population and sample selection, instrumentation or sources of data, the validity of the study, reliability of the study, data collection and management, data analysis procedures, ethical considerations, limitations, and delimitations, and summary. 

Chapter 4: Results 

In the fourth chapter of the dissertation, we summarize all the data we have collected during our research. Furthermore, it helps us to understand things such as the collection and analysis of the data. Due to this phenomenon, the results can be presented appropriately. It is significant to write this section in the past tense and should be clear enough for the readers to interpret the results. It should reflect on the process of research and study. In addition to this, one can present the chapter in the desired format such as table, text, or figure. It should be highly readable and explain the findings clearly. There are certain questions you can ask to give a structure to the section. 

  • Do you have sufficient data to answer the research questions? 
  • Do you have sufficient data to provide strong support to your conclusions (chapter 5)? 
  • Is the construction of the research process in the third person? 
  • Is there a clear explanation of the data with text, charts, and graphs? 

Moreover, the result section or chapter 4 of 5 chapters of the dissertation should be inclusive of introduction, descriptive findings, data analysis procedures, results, and summary. 

Chapter:5 Conclusion 

It is very clear with the name that this chapter includes the final results of the study, recommendations, implications, and the summary of the entire study. Meanwhile, chapter 5 is a crucial chapter of the study as it helps the reader to know about the contribution of the researcher in the study. 

Tips to write 5 chapters of dissertations

Above all, one of the most important things while writing the 5 chapters of dissertations is that you know the outline of the thesis well. This simply means that you should know what exactly you have to write in the thesis from the very beginning. The division of all the 5 chapters is important as it solves the complexity of the dissertation. However, there are certain things that one can use as tips to write 5 chapters of the dissertation

Selection of topic and theoretical framework

Chose a topic of your choice or something you would love to know more about. After you have a topic or question, look for some relevant information and theoretical framework. 

Purpose of the study

Come up with the purpose of the thesis with your knowledge and information you have gathered yet. This will help you to write your proposal. Show the proposal to the concerned person. Furthermore, take approval for the further processing of the study. 


Your instrumentation is ready now. Make it clear and follow your board protocol. It takes weeks and months. Rejection of the topic would result in vain. 

Data collection

The next step is to collect the required data and samples. Analyze them, write up all your findings, and compose the final chapter. There are certain common elements in every thesis. Make sure you look at the outline of the dissertation. 

Final stage of thesis

Take as much time you need to finish the thesis. The more time you will take, the more progressive your dissertation would be. Read as much thesis you can. Concurrently take help of your seniors for better results.

These were some of the general tips that can help you with a well-articulated dissertation. It is always a better option to follow the general outline of the dissertation. We have given the outline below in this blog. 

Dissertation chapters breakdown

Having a plan makes any process easy and less complex. In like manner, a planned dissertation structure makes thesis writing easy. It is significant to break down the chapters. It is necessary for a relevant and presentable dissertation. 

To enumerate, it is essential to have a breakdown of the word counts we have for the dissertation. Distribution of the words in the dissertation would help you with a firm writing base. Depending upon the field of study, the word count could vary. Given below is a general dissertation chapters breakdown. It will help the students who are writing the dissertation for the first time. 

  1. Chapter 1 of the dissertation is the introduction. It contains background, problem statement etc. It should be 10% of the total dissertation writing.  
  2. Moving towards the second chapter which is the literature review. It should be 30% to 40% of the total dissertation. 
  3. Chapter 3 is the research methodology section which should be 15% of the entire dissertation. 
  4. Try to complete your findings and research in 5% of the writing. 
  5. You can give 30% words to the discussion section. 
  6. Conclusion and recommendation should be around 10%.
  7. Never forget to add the section of references to your dissertation. You can do this in one sheet or may require many. 

This is not a strict division of the words in your dissertation.

Dissertation outline 

We should write a dissertation in five different chapters. Besides, there are diverse sections in these chapters that tell about elements of the dissertation in detail.

Dissertation Outline
Chapter 1: An Introduction

Talking about the introduction, it is inclusive of background, context, theoretical framework, problem statement, the purpose of the study, research questions or hypothesis, and rationale or relevance. Simultaneously, it is inclusive of the significance of the study, nature of the study, definition of terms, assumptions, limitations, and delimitations, summary and the organization of the remaining study. 

Chapter 2: A literature review

This section of the dissertation must have an introduction, conceptual framework, review of the literature, and summary. 

Chapter 3: Dissertation methodology

Things that should be included in the dissertation methodology are: 

  1. Introduction to the description of the design and method of data collection in the thesis. 
  2. It should include experiment, description, design, and survey. 
  3. Sampling, population, element, universe, probability, sample design, etc. 
  4. Data measurement with the method used, application, validity and reliability of the method. 
  5. Justification of the study, techniques used, and relationship expected and its nature. 
  6. Limitations, delimitations, and assumptions of the study. 
Chapter 4: Results

It should contain an introduction, descriptive findings, data analysis procedures, results, and a summary.

Chapter 5: Conclusion 

This chapter should precisely include an introduction and the summary of the study, a summary of findings and conclusions, implications and recommendations, strength and weaknesses of the study, and references.

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Essay Writing

How do you write a dissertation methodology? An answer!

A dissertation is nothing else but a thesis. It is a majorly talked document in your academics, generally graduation and post-graduation. It is a document that contains the findings and research conducted by you to get a professional qualification. You remember those research files you made in the last year of your graduation, right? We are talking about the same. It sounds a bit different from our assignments we got in school, isn’t it? So, is there any specific way to develop a dissertation and if yes, then what is it? Let’s find out. Let’s read about dissertation methodology and the right way of carrying it out in detail. 

What is the dissertation methodology? 

Dissertation methodology is the method we use to carry out our academic research. The methodology of conducting a dissertation is the significant part and sometimes the major complexity. You have to be specific in your dissertation methodology as it describes your philosophical supporting structure along with the method used (qualitative or quantitative or both) with reason. This helps the reader in evaluating your research as authentic and reliable. However, all these affairs make dissertation methodology a challenging and sluggish process. 

In your thesis or dissertation, include a detailed section such as the abstract, introduction, literature review, methodology, results, and conclusion. Abstract holds the summary of your topic and introduction consists of background, the focus of the study, and the key objective. Further, the literature review comprises of a detailed review of what scholars understand and have to say about the topic you have chosen. 

The result and conclusion section are significant as it is going to tell the reader how your findings relate to the question you had for the research along with a confirmation. 

Choosing the dissertation methodology

What is the field of your study? This question largely decides the dissertation methodology. Moreover, the question in your research process would also help you in choosing the right method. There are two methods, the quantitative and the qualitative method that you can use to conduct the research. Using both the method together would help in the generation of the best outcome.

The use of a quantitative research method is done when you want to collect the numerical data or want to write the statistics. In case you are trying to build categories, measure certain things, or count, the quantitative method can expertly help you. Conducting surveys, tests, and experiments would earn you accurate data. 

On the other hand, if you are looking for the collection of non-statistical data, qualitative research method can be very helpful. In case you want to establish a hypothesis, this method is going to help you a lot. Focus groups, observations, and interviews are needed for the collection of qualitative data. 

Writing a dissertation methodology

As we have discussed much dissertation methodology, let us read about the way we should write it. The methodology section can solely convince the reader about the validity and reliability of the research process. It should be inclusive of information regarding the type, process of data collection, the process of data analysis, list of tools used in the process (if any), and the reason, why this method? You should always write the methodology section in the past tense

Always include the following while writing dissertation methodology: 

  1. Methodological approach: an insight
  2. Method of data collection in a detailed manner
  3. Method of data analysis in a detailed manner
  4. Justification of the methodological process
Methodological approach: an insight –

It is significant that you introduce the reader to your methodological approach. This should include the research problem and the kind of data you would require to meet the goal. Make a detailed note on the type of method, if you collected the primary data yourself or you have considered the secondary data. Besides, you are also required to inform if you have collected any experimental data by variable’s manipulation or any descriptive data with observation. The detailing does not stop here. It should also include information like: 

  1. Why do you think the method you used for the research process suitable? 
  2. On what criteria, your method of research is considered valid and reliable?
  3. If the method of research you used is standard or is there any need for the process’ justification?
  4. Does your method meet all the ethical or philosophical aspects? 
Method of data collection in a detailed manner –

After writing the insights of your methodological approach, it’s time to write a piece of detailed information on the method of data collection.

Quantitative methods

There is a lot to write in the section of detailed methodology. When you opt for the quantitative research method you should clearly explain how you organized the concepts and what were the ways that helped you measure variables. In addition to this, shed some light on the sampling method and the list of tools, materials, and process you have used to collect data.

  • Your writing should involve how, when, and where you conducted the survey. 
  • What was your procedure to select the samples or participants? 
  • The mode of your survey (online or offline). How long did it take to get the replies? 
  • The size of the sample you selected and the response rate to it. 
  • For better understanding, you can attach appendix of a questionnaire for your readers. 
  • Your dissertation methodology should be inclusive of detailed tools, procedure, and technique of your experiment. 
  • How the experiment was designed by you and how you selected participants. 
  • What was your method of manipulation and variable measurement? 
  • Explain the ways that helped you in the selection of your content. 
  • What was the source of your information or content?
Qualitative methods

The method of qualitative research is much subjective and flexible in comparison to the quantitative method. Like the quantitative method of research, you are required to write about the criteria of participants and sources selection, the context of your research, and your role as the data collector (was it active or passive)? You should mention the points given below in your research writing:

  • How, when, and where the research was conducted? 
  • How many participants were there and how did you select them? 
  • Was the interview structured, unstructured, or semi-structured? 
  • How long did it take in the process? 
  • How, when, and where the ethnography was conducted? 
  • Details of the community under your observation and the process of reaching to them. 
  • Your role in the community and the way of data collection. 
  • The points you considered while selecting case study material. 
  • The thing you analysed and process of analysis, selection and collection. 

Tips for writing dissertation methodology

If you find the dissertation methodology complex then how about having a checklist? There are chances that you might get confused with so much on your plate. Sit back and relax because here we have quick tips for you that would help you in structuring your research process. You can look up to this checklist anytime you are writing the research process. 

Identification of the problem

It is very important for you to always keep in mind the problem you are trying to address through your research. You should explain all the questions thoroughly that you are going to discuss in the research. 

What is your approach

An overview of anything is always a great help! Even if you start reading a book, you first try to look for the overview. This makes the reader already connected and build trust in the material they are going to read. Similarly, an overview of your dissertation methodology will be a guide to your reader. It will easily help them understand the method you have used. Additionally, it presents you like a well-informed person who has enough knowledge of the implications of the methodologies. 

How productive the research is

A proper and excellent method of the experiment is the one that can yield some genuine results. In general, everything which is productive is considered useful and credible. To make your experiment more credible you should include the details of research techniques so that if anyone wants, they can create the research of their own with yours as motivation.  

Reading enough of methodologies

The more you will read the work done by your seniors the more you will get an idea of things you have to do and how to do. It will always provide you with a structure that what your dissertation methodology should look like. 

Planning of a structure

Planning is always important in everything you do. When something is planned, there are high chances of obtaining a positive result. Make a clear structure of the method you have used and give proper detailing to things so that all the arguments can be justified. Drafting an outline would also help you in getting things checked by your professor or supervisor if it is logical and needs any type of editing. 

The audience is always important

You are conducting any research for your audience so it is your prior duty to make them understand things clearly. If your reader is not able to understand the research then it simply means that the purpose of the research left being unserved. Taking the methodology part into consideration, you should always give a piece of detailed information about the method which is likely to be used less by the people in your area of research. In case it is a widely used method then there is no need for detailed background. 

Tips for writing a dissertation methodology

Points to ponder while writing dissertation methodology

Given below are some of the crucial things you should keep in mind while writing a dissertation methodology. 

Descriptive methodology

This has been written in this blog several times that everything in your research should be detailed and descriptive. Do not try to cut it short to leave things unclear. The more you will keep the report descriptive the more approachable and considerable it would look. Be it the sampling or the analysis of data, everything should be clear and detailed. 

Justification of choices

The second thing which is a crucial part of your research is the justification of your choices. There can be questions from any side of your research, you should always be able to answer why you have chosen a certain method over another. Being able to answer the decisions you have taken on each step of the research would earn you an impressive methodology chapter.

The right method of research

Whatever method you choose for carrying out your research it should be best in every aspect. Before choosing anything, you should always analyse the limitations and benefits of research techniques. Do not overestimate things and even if the research process has limited applications, you should be knowing them all. 

Ethics are important

Conduct the work in an ethical manner which means it should not be harmful to anyone in any way. If you have participants, do not use them without consent and try to protect their data in the best way possible. 


Having an appendix makes the research process look more structured and professional. Several things can be included in appendix such as consent forms, documentation, questionnaires, etc.    

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Essay Writing

ABCD of interpersonal skills: Get detailed information

How many times you have gone for an interview and being judged on your communication skills? Almost every time, right? Of course, your technical knowledge, your experience, your certificates, and your CV matters for that job but what do you think a good interpersonal communication would earn you? 

“Only through communication can human life hold meaning.” This one statement is enough to understand the importance of good interpersonal communication skills in life. We all know communication is the key to a successful life, be it related to a career or a personal success. Words can work tremendously over someone.

You can win hearts and designations if you can communicate well. With this blog, let us see what more interpersonal communication has to offer you and check how effective a communicator you are. The researchers of have brought this blog to you that will help you understand interpersonal skills from A to Z. 

What are the interpersonal skills? 

We need to communicate to bring our emotions, thinking, views, and ideas out both on the personal and professional level. We meet several people daily and interact with them. This is where we use our interpersonal skills on daily basis. 

The non-verbal and verbal process of sharing ideas and information with a person or group of people is called interpersonal communication and the ability to conduct the conversation in an effective manner is interpersonal skills. This can be both formal and informal. Interpersonal skills are inclusive of various skills. However, good and effective listening and speaking ability are counted must. Management of our emotions also falls under interpersonal skills.

Leaving behind the personal bubble, when we move towards a world of work, the significance of interpersonal communication elevates. There could be a long list of soft skills that can be used by you in your workplace depending upon the roles you play and the place you work in. The good interpersonal communication in the workplace is significant for the satisfaction of the employees, their collaboration in the work, their motivation, and success of the business. 

Need for interpersonal communication in the workplace

Interpersonal communication in the workplace

You might not know but you will be always under observation at your workplace for the way you communicate. Keeping all your abilities on a side, your managers would like to see effective communication skill. The reason behind this observation and judgement is wide. It helps you in the development of your career as well as increases your productivity in the office. Given below are the reasons why interpersonal skills are important for your professional life.

To solve a problem

Problem-solving requires interpersonal communication skills. This assists people in the discussion on any issue (work-related problems) so that the strength, weakness, threat, and opportunities can be analysed before making a final decision. One such example of the discussion process is the brainstorming session. In the process, everyone is allowed to participate, share voices, and all the ideas are respected. 

Alignment of business

Interpersonal communication skills help in aligning the business in a successful direction. Poor communication can damage the business in many ways, be the conversation is within the workplace or outside the workplace. A weak communication within the workplace results in the unclear directions to the employees by the managers whereas it can result in clients and deals fall outside the workplace. Any change in management can also be discussed better in this way. 

Prosperous company culture

A well-executed interpersonal communication helps in prosperous company culture. In addition to this, a good interpersonal communication skill among employees would also assist in making the organizational culture more positive and cooperative. It helps in building trust among the employees and the employer.  

Better employee recognition

The more interpersonal communication would be good, the more it will help in better employee recognition. When the employees and managers are good at communicating, this would help them in the recognition of good work of each other and there would be more productive feedback. 

Prevents miscommunication

Having good interpersonal communication in the workplace doesn’t let workplace miscommunication happen. Managers with a positive attitude and open communication are likely to be seen as more cordial than those who do not communicate much or are bad at communication. In this way, employees can directly approach to decision-makers. This prevents rumours, gossips, and miscommunication. 

Better management

There are some other benefits of good interpersonal communication skills of both the employee and employer such as a healthy personal relationship, conflict management, success of the employee, career development, and crisis management. Moreover, it plays a significant role in building effective management and leadership. 

How to develop impressive interpersonal skills? 

For the betterment of your professional toolbox, interpersonal skills are very important. From an internal discussion in the workplace to an important meeting with the client, you need effective communication skills and bold confidence to convince the client. With a strong interpersonal skill, you can win associates and convince your manager simultaneously about your capabilities and qualities. Eventually, the process will help you in the advancement of your career. 

Given below are some of the ways how you can develop impressive interpersonal skills. 

  1. Develop an uplifting viewpoint: Never let yourself down with any of your matters and draw yourself towards an optimistic side of your job and things you do in life even on the personal level. In a stressed-out situation, pick out the positive and begin things on that. 
  1. Know your colleagues better: No matter you are in the office, or any casual place with your colleagues and friends. This is a well-known fact that we learn things from the circle we live in. Moreover, try to know much about their lives so that you can build a good relationship with them. This is a part of your interpersonal skill development. 
  1. Don’t be overly emotional: Your workplace might not be the right place to let that emotion come out all the time. You can be very sad, depressed, happy, annoyed, or feel anything but never let that come in front of your colleagues. Being impatient can be harmful to you. If you ever find yourself in such a condition, then take a deep breath and let that emotion sit down. Always try to present yourself in a much calmer way.  
  1. Uphold that relationship: You must have heard your acquaintance saying that you never know who and what can be helpful in which phase of life. They are not completely wrong. You should always try to stay connected with your old college friends and your former colleagues either on social media or on a personal level. This presents you as a person who values relationships and would also help you with your career. 
  1. Look for the good in everyone: It is impossible for us to like every human we meet or work with. However, our personal preferences should never affect the professional life. Even if you have clashed with some of your colleagues try to look for the good part of the person, something that can help you with your career. 
  1. Empathy is important: For being a good and understanding human being, empathy is crucial. Try to understand the person and the entire scenario with a well-rounded view before coming to any conclusion. 
  1. Recognize other’s skills: If you love being praised for things you do wholeheartedly, the person next to you is expecting the same. Appreciation is very important if you want someone to trust you. Give the person all the due the credits he or she deserves. 
  1. Self-assurance is significant: For the conduction of effective communication on both personal and professional level, you must know your abilities well. This brings you confidence and your communication become effective naturally. 
  1. Try to listen: Never listen to reply but to understand. Also, keep the listening active. This means you should look into the eyes of the speaker when he or she is saying something, understand them and nod when needed, repeat what they said in the way you understood. This would not only help you recall things easily in future but will also make the speaker feel heard and respected. 

How interpersonal skills can be presented well? 

Have you ever come across a flawless resume, something that had fascinated you to make your own in such a tremendous manner? If yes, then there are great chances that the interpersonal skills of the person are preeminent. Huge data and numbers on your resume might be a good way to impress the employer but now they also look for passion.

Your interpersonal skills on your resume could be like a cherry on top and would make you stand out of the crowd. But how are you going to attain that? Don’t worry, here you will find an impressive way of your skill presentation. How about STAR method? 

The STAR method is the abbreviated form of situation, task, action, and result. This is a creative way of presenting your ideas and mindset during a work process. While creating your resume, you can write the situation more like an accomplishment. Later, explain the aim, which is your task and the action you took as an individual to meet the result. This is the STAR method of showing your accomplishment and an impressive way to demonstrate your interpersonal skills. 

If you find this way too creative for yourself then you can simply use the second method which is spotting the job’s soft skill and illustrating it on your resume. Make a list of qualities you have and see if it matches the job requirement. This would help you to get your dream job. 

A list of most valuable interpersonal skills to cultivate

In recent times having technical knowledge is not sufficient. We have already discussed it above. The organization asks for more. You should have it all to be the best fit for the organization. Given below is the list of most valuable and expected interpersonal skills by your recruiter. 

  1. Self-assurance: Self-assurance or self-confidence is important in every aspect of life. It naturally brings the best out of you. A lot of knowledge, a sufficient amount of research, good clothing, and good communication are some of the factors that would help you develop confidence. 
  1. Positive attitude: Among various things you need for good interpersonal communication, a positive attitude is a must. Any recruiter would like to hire you knowing the fact that you have healthy mental health and you look for optimism in every possible situation. Never defame your former company or employees in any way and try to keep yourself calm in the toughest situations. You can practice breathing exercises for this. 
  1. Cooperation: It is very important to be cooperative when you have to work with a team. It is not always possible to be okay with everything but the least you can do is TRY. You should be able to work in a culturally diverse environment. 
  1. Basic reasoning and critical thinking: In your professional life you should always be a resourceful person. Even if you don’t know the answer to everything, you should always be ready to find one. 
  1. Good communication: One of the most important quality is to be able to communicate well. Read more and more books and practice communication in front of the mirror if you are a beginner. 
  1. Pressure handling ability: You never know what might come your way when you are working on a project. You should always train yourself in such a manner that you can come up with the best solutions even if you have to work under pressure. 
  1. Time management: Time is very powerful; this is something we hear a lot and that’s true. There is a great significance of punctuality in the workplace. No clients would like to receive their order post-deadline. This might affect your career in the wrong way. You must know how to manage your time so that you can carry out all the given tasks easily before eleventh-hour. 
  1. Adaptability: Every workplace expects their employees to work in flexible hours and being able to adapt themselves in the work culture. You should come out of your comfort zone to provide the company with the best you have. You should be hard-working.
  1. Capacity to acknowledge useful input: Some people are good at taking criticism and feedback personally. You do not have to do that. You should try to make yourself open to advise and feedbacks. Accept any kind of feedback with grace and keep on winning hearts at your place. This is going to take you a long way. 


With this blog, we have come to know that interpersonal skills are significant for any human for the development of their personal and professional relations in every aspect.

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